The total amount of documented direct damage to Ukraine's infrastructure caused by the full-scale war with Russia is estimated at $137.8 billion (replacement cost) as of December 2022, a study by the Kyiv School of Economics published on Jan. 24 has found.
Compared to the latest estimates as of November 2022, the total amount of losses has increased by almost $2 billion. Russia continues to destroy Ukraine's infrastructure through massive attacks, shelling, and hostilities.
According to KSE project experts, the largest increase in damage in December was due to an increase in losses from the destruction of housing, educational institutions, and cultural, religious, and sports facilities.
Damage to housing is estimated at $54 billion. In December, this amount increased by another $1.5 billion. Over the 10 months of full-scale war, a total of 149,300 residential properties have been damaged or destroyed, including 131,400 private houses, 17,500 apartment buildings, and 280 dormitories.
Infrastructure ($35.6 billion), industry, and businesses ($13 billion) remain the most affected sectors of the war.
Infrastructure is gradually being restored. According to the Ministry of Communities, Territories and Infrastructure Development, as of the beginning of December 2022, out of more than 150 destroyed or damaged bridges or bridge crossings on national roads, traffic was restored at 72 sites, and as of the beginning of January, 78 sites were restored.
Most of these were restored in Kyiv (20 out of 24) and Chernihiv (20 out of27) oblasts. Over the past month, traffic has additionally resumed across bridges in Kharkiv, Mykolaiv, and Kherson oblasts.
Russia continues to inflict damage on Ukraine's educational institutions, with losses in this sector increasing by $400 million to $8.6 billion. The hostilities have already damaged or destroyed more than 3,000 educational institutions, including 1,400 secondary-education, 865 preschool-education, and 505 higher-education establishments.
Damage to cultural, sports, and religious institutions has increased by another $100 million and is estimated at $2.2 billion. As of December 2022, there were 1,327 such facilities: 907 cultural institutions, 168 sports facilities, 157 tourism facilities, and 95 religious facilities.
Since the beginning of Russia's full-scale invasion of Ukraine, at least 64 large and medium-sized enterprises, 84,300 pieces of agricultural machinery, 31 boarding schools, 44 community aid centers, nearly 3,000 stores, 593 pharmacies, nearly 195,000 private cars, 14,400 public transport vehicles, 330 hospitals, and 595 state and local government buildings have been damaged, destroyed, or seized.