The heavy attrition of Russian main battle tanks in Ukraine is most likely due to Russia's failure to fit and properly employ adequate explosive reactive armor, the UK’s Ministry of Defence said in a Twitter update on Aug. 18.
The UK MoD noted that when used correctly, dynamic protection reduces the effectiveness of approaching projectiles before they hit the tank.
"This suggests that Russian forces have not rectified a culture of poor ERAuse, which dates back to the First Chechen War in 1994," the message reads.
It is likely that many Russian tank operators lack the training to maintain ERA, which leads to either a poor fit of explosive elements, or to its complete absence, added the Defense Ministry.
"These deficiencies probably contribute to the widespread incidents of turret ejection, which are well documented in eyewitness videos from Ukraine," the agency said.
According to the report, the war in Ukraine has witnessed numerous failures by Russian commanders to enforce low-level combat discipline, such as the use of dynamic protection. The cumulative effect of these failures is probably an important factor in the low effectiveness of the Russian army.